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Sharkey, Noel, (in press) The evitability of autonomous robot warfare, International Review of the Red Cross, for December, 2012

Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C (2013) Robot Surgery on the cutting edge of ethics, IEEE Computer, January, 56-64


Sharkey, N.E. (2012) Automating Warfare: lessons learned from the drones, Journal of Law, Information & Science, 21(2),


Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C (2012) The Eldercare Factory, Gerontology, 58, 282-288


Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (2012) Granny and the robots: Ethical issues in robot care for the elderly, Ethics and Information Technology, 14, 27-40 Available online at SpringerLink


Sharkey, N.E. (2011) The automation and proliferation of military drones and the protection of civilians. Journal of Law, Innovation and Technology, 3(2) 229–240


Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (2011)  Anthropomorphism and deception in robot care and companionship, IEEE RAM, 18 (1), 32-38


Sharkey, N.E. (2010) Saying "No!" to Lethal Autonomous Targeting, Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 299-313


Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2010) The crying shame of robot nannies: an ethical appraisal, Journal of Interaction Studies, 11, 161-190 Available from John Benjamin Publishing website

Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2010) Robot nannies get a wheel in the door, Journal of Interaction Studies, 11, 161-190 Available from John Benjamin Publishing website 


Sharkey, N.E., Goodman, M., Ross, N. (2010)  The Coming Robot Crimewave, IEEE Computer, August


Sharkey, N.E. (2009) A matter of precision, Defence Management Journal, Winter, 2009, 126-128

Sharkey, N.E. (2009)  The Robot Arm of the Law grows longer, IEEE Computer,  August, 2009


Sharkey, N.E. (2009) Death Strikes from the Sky: The calculus of proportionality, IEEE Science and Society, 28, 16-19


Sharkey, N.E. (2009)  Weapons of indiscriminate lethality, FIfF Kommunikation, 1/09, 26-28


Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, AJC (2009) Electro-mechanical Robots before the computer, IMechE Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 223, 235-241


Sharkey, N.E. (2008) The Ethical Frontiers of  Robotics, Science, 322. 1800-1801

Sharkey, N.E. (2008) Cassandra or the false prophet of doom: AI robots and war, IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 23, no, 4, 14-17,  JulyAugust Issue


Sharkey, N.E. (2008) Grounds for Discrimination: Autonomous Robot Weapons, RUSI Defence Systems, 11 (2), 86-89


Sharkey, N.E. (2007) Automated Killers and the Computing Profession, IEEE Computer, November, 106-108


Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2007) Artificial Intelligence and Natural Magic, Artificial Intelligence Review, 25, 9-20



Book Chapters

        Sharkey, Noel (in press) The proliferation of robot technology, autonomy and legal prohibition. Proceeding of the Conference on Robots and the Law, Center for Interdisziplinary Studies in Bielefeld (ZiF), Germany, 6th to 9th of May, 2012

        Sharkey, N.E. (in press) The proliferation of drone technology, autonomy and military necessity, in Emannuel Goffi (ed) French Airforce book.

        Sharkey, Noel (in press) Prohibiting autonomous lethal robots, In P. Aarne Vesilind (Ed) Peace Engineering 2nd Edition, Woodville, NH: Lakeshore press


Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C (2012) Robot surgery and ethical challenges, In Paula Gomes (Ed), Medical robotics: Minimally invasive surgery, Woodhead Publishing, ISBN-13: 978 0 85709 130 7, 276-291


Sharkey, N. (2012). Drone Proliferation and the Protection of Civilians. In G.L. BERUTO, ed. International Humanitarian Law and New Weapon Technologies. Milan: FrancoAngeli


Sharkey, N.E. (2012) Killing made easy: from joystics to politics, in Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics, eds. Patrick Lin, George Bekey, and Keith Abney, Cambridge: MIT Press 111-128


Sharkey, N (2012) L’avenir de las guerre par drones interposes, in La guerre robotisee, Didier Danet, Jean-Paul Hanon, Gerard de Boisboissel (Eds), Paris: Economica, 133-147


Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2012) The rights and wrongs of robot care, in Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics, eds. Patrick Lin, George Bekey, and Keith Abney, Cambridge: MIT Press 267-282


Sharkey, N (2011) Processus décisionnels : vers des réponses automatisées aux questions de vie ou de mort, In Ronan Doare and Henri Hude (ed)  Les Robots Au Coeur Du Champ De Bataille, 49-67


Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2010) Living with Robots: Ethical tradeoffs in eldercare, In Yorick Wilks (Ed) Artificial Companions in Society: scientific, economic and philosphical perspectives, Amsterdam,: John Benjamins, 245-256


Sharkey, AJC and Sharkey, N.E. (2009) Connectionism, In John Symons and Paco Calvo (Eds) The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology, Routledge ISBN: 978-0-415-39632-5


Sharkey, AJC and Sharkey, N (2008) Can a swarm be embodied? Handbook of Cognitive Science, Paco Calvo and Toni Gomila (Eds) New York: Elsivier


Sharkey, N.E.  (in press) The ethical problems for 21st century robots: from the battlefield to law enforcement, RSA book of Ethical futures (aimed a policy makers)


Other (authored public articles)


Robot cars are here - dont write them off, Guardian February 19 2012

America's mindless killer robots must be stopped, Guardian, December 3, 2012

Autonomous robots and the automation of warfare, International Humanitarian Law Magazine, Issue 2, December 2012

Drone race will ultimately lead to a sanitised factory of slaughter, Saturday Guardian 4 August 2012 (reprinted in The Hindu and The Gulf Times


Occupy Wall Street's 'occucopter' – who's watching whom? (with Sarah Knuckey) Guardian,  December 21, 201


Are Foxconn robots the answer to worker suicides? Guardian, August 2, 2011


March of the Killer Robots, Daily Telegraph,  15th June, 2009

While my android gently weeps, Guardian, 2nd March, 2009

The return of Elektro, the first celebrity robot, Feature for New Scientist (cover story) 25 December, 2008

Robot girl mix-up: How “cut and paste” journalism created two robots out of one, Guardian Science Blog, 12 October, 2008

Grand Challenge: Children on the front line of weapons development, Guardian Science Blog, 27 August, 2008


Don't Dismiss the Robot Surgeons, Guardian commentary, 28th August, 2008

Roboticist Noel Sharkey on Wall-E Another View, Guardian, 22.07.08

Death by Robot, Industrial Focus: The European journal of manufacturing, Magazine distributed by the Guardian, p62-65,  May/June, 2008

The grim reality of robots at war, Scientists for Global Responsibility Newsletter, Winter, 2008

Robot Wars are a Reality, Saturday Guardian, 18th August, 2007 (1000 words).  Reprinted in full in The Hindu,  20th August, 2007 and again as a Feature in the Gulf Times, August, 23rd, 2007. Reprinted in part in Iran Daily, 20th August, 2007

I Ropebot, Feature for New Scientist 06.07.2007 and an extended version in Popular Mechanics, September, 2007


A robot in your home or in your dreams, Industrial Focus Magazine distributed by the Guardian, 22nd March, 2006

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Robot Learning

Selected Papers 

Gerecke, U., Sharkey, N.E., and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2003) Common Evidence Vectors for Reliable Localization with SOM Ensembles, Neural Computing, 55. 499-519

Sharkey, N.E. (2002), Biologically Inspired Robotics, In M.Arbib (Ed), Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, Cambridge: MIT press

Gerecke, U., Sharkey, N.E., and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2002). Overcoming Scalability Problems of Robot Localization with Neural Network Ensembles. Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems (INES'2002)

Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (2002) Cognitive Modelling: Psychology and Connectionism, In M.Arbib (Ed), Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, Cambridge: MIT press

Gerecke, U., Sharkey, N.E., and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2001). Common Evidence Vectors for Reliable Localization with SOM Ensembles. Proceedings of Engineering Application of Neural Networks (EANN-2001)

Sharkey, N.& Ziemke, T. (2001). Mechanistic vs. Phenomenal Embodiment: Can Robot Embodiment Lead to Strong AI?. Cognitive Systems Research, 2(4), 251-262.

Sharkey, N.E. and Ziemke, T. (2001) Life, mind and robots: the ins and outs of embodiment, In S. Wermter and R. Sun (eds) Symbolic and Neural Net Hybrids, MIT press.

Ziemke, T. and Sharkey, N.E. (2001)  A stroll through the worlds of robots and animals: Applying Jakob von Uexk\"ull's theory of meaning to adaptive robots and artificial life,  Semiotica.134 (1-4), 701-746.

Rathbone, K. and Sharkey, N.E. (2001) Evolving Lifelong Learners for a Visually Guided Arm, Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering, 9(1), 1-23                                                                                       

Sharkey, N.E. and Ziemke, T. (2000) Life, mind and robots: the ins and outs of embodiment, In S. Wermter and R. Sun (eds) Hybrid Neural Systems, 313-332, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.

Gerecke, U, Sharkey, N.E., and Sharkey, A.J.C. (2000) Ensembles of SOMs for improving the reliability of robot localization, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Recent Advances in Mobile Robots, Leicester, UK

Sharkey, A.J.C., Sharkey, N.E., Gerecke, U., and Chandroth, G.O. (2000) . The ``test and select'' approach to ensemble combination. Proceedings of First International Workshop on Multiple Classifier Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1857, 30-44, ISBN 3-540-67704-6.

Rathbone, K. and Sharkey, N.E. (1999) Evolving robot arm controllers for continued adaptation,  Proceedings of IEEE international conference on Computational Intelligence for Robotics and Automation (CIRA-99). Montery, CA.

Gerecke, U. and Sharkey, N.E. (1999) Quick and dirty localisation for a lost robot, Proceedings of IEEE international conference on Computational Intelligence for Robotics and Automation (CIRA-99). Montery, CA.

Sharkey, N.E. and Ziemke, T. (1998) A consideration of the biological and psychological foundations of autonomous robotics. Connection Science, 10, 361-391

Sharkey, N.E. (1998) Learning from innate behaviors: a quantitative evaluation of  neural network controllers,  Machine Learning,  31, 115-139 (also appeared in Autonomous Robots, 5, 317-334).

Sharkey, N.E. (1997) The new wave in robot learning, Robotics and Autonomous Systems.22, 179-186.

Sharkey, N.E. (1997) Artificial neural networks for coordination and control: the portability of experiential representations, Robotics and Autonomous Systems. 22, 345-360.

Sharkey, N.E. & Heemskerk, J.N.H. (1997) The neural mind and the robot. In Browne, AJ (Ed.) Neural Network Perspectives on Cognition and Adaptive Robotics, 169-194, London, IOP Press.

Chen, M. Zalzala, A. & Sharkey, N. (1997) Towards a comparative study of neural networks in inverse model learning and compensation applied to dynamic robot control. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Artificial Neural Networks, Cambridge, UK.

Sharkey, N.E., Heemskerk, J. & Neary, J. (1996) Subsuming behaviours in Neural Network Controllers. Proceedings of ROBOLEARN96, Florida, July.

Sharkey, N.E., Heemskerk, J.N.H. Neary, J. (1996) Training artificial neural network controllers of Robot Control, Proceedings of Engineering Applications of Neural Networks - EANN96, London, June.

Heemskerk, J.N.H., & N.E. Sharkey (1996). Learning subsumptions for an autonomous robot. Proceedings of IEE seminar on "Self Learning Robots", Savoy Place London, 12 February 1996, Digest No: 96/026.

Ahson, I., Sharkey, N. and Brument, N. Avoiding joint limits and obstacles for kinematically redundant manipulators: a fuzzy logic approach, Proceeding of the 5th IEEE conference on fuzzy systems, New Orleans, September, 1996:

Kumaresan, M. and Sharkey, N.E. (1993) Generalisation and extension of motor programs for a sequential recurrent network. In G.A.Bekey and K.Y.Goldberg, (Eds) Neural Networks in Robotics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 217-235. 

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Improving the Reliability of Neural Nets

Selected Papers                                                                                                 [ Menu] [Home]

Sharkey, A.J.C., Chandroth, G.O, and Sharkey, N.E. (2000) A Multi-Net System for the Fault
Diagnosis of a Diesel Engine. Neural Computing and Applications, 9, 152-160.

Sharkey, A.J.C., Chandroth, G.O. and Sharkey, N.E. (2000) Acoustic Emisssion, Cylinder Pressure
and Vibration: A Multisensor Approach to Robust Fault Diagnosis. In Proceedings of IJCNN2000,
Como, Italy, July.

Chandroth,G.O., Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (1999) Cylinder pressures and vibration in
internal combustion engine condition monitoring. In Proceedings 'Comadem 99', Sunderland, UK, July,

Chandroth, G.O, Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (1999) Vibration signatures, wavelets and
principal components in diesel engine diagnostics. Marine Technology ODRA 99', 11-13 October,

Chandroth, G., Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E (1998) Artificial Neural Nets and Cylinder
Pressures in Diesel Engine Fault Diagnosis. In Proceedings of INMARCO98 (Institute of Marine
Engineers (India)), Mumbai, India.

Sharkey, A.J.C., Sharkey, N.E., and Cross, S.S. (1998) Adapting an Ensemble Approach for the
Diagnosis of Breast Cancer. In Proceedings of ICANN 98, Springer-Verlag, pp 281-286.

Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (1997) Diversity, Selection and Ensembles of Artificial Neural Nets. Proceedings of Third International Conference on Neural Networks and their Applications. IUSPIM, University of Aix-Marseille III, Marseilles, France, March, 205-212.

Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (1997) Combining Diverse Neural Nets, Knowledge Engineering Review, 12, 3, 1-17.

Sharkey, A.J.C., Sharkey, N.E. and Chandroth, G.O. (1996) Diverse Neural Net solutions to a Fault Diagnosis Problem . Neural Computing and Applications, 4, 218-227.

Sharkey, N.E., Neary, J. & Sharkey, A.J.C. (1995) Searching weight space for backpropagation solution types. In Lars Niklasson and Mikael Boden (Eds) Current Trends in Connectionism, Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.

Sharkey, AJC, Sharkey, NE. and Gopinath, O.C. (1995) Understanding Diversity in Neural Networks, In Lars Niklasson and Mikael Boden (Eds) Current Trends in Connectionism, Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.

Croll, P.R., Sharkey, A.J.C., Bass, J.M., Sharkey, N.E., and  Fleming, P.J. (1995) Dependable intelligent voting for real-time control software. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 8, 615-623,

Sharkey, A.J.C, Sharkey, N.E. and Chandroth, G.O. (1995) Neural Nets and Diversity. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, Belgirate, Italy, 11-13 October 1995 pp 375-389.

Partridge and Sharkey (1994) Neural computing for software reliability. Expert Systems, 11, 3-15.

Sharkey, N.E. and Partridge, D. (1992) The statistical independence of network generalisation: an application in software engineering. In P.G. Lisboa & M.J. Taylor (Eds.) Neural Networks:Techniques and Applications. Chichester, UK:Ellis Horwood.

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Connectionist Representation

Selected Papers                                                                                                              [ Menu] [Home]

Niklasson, L. and Sharkey, N.E. (1997) The systematicity and generalisation of connectionist compositional representations.
In Georg Dorffner (Ed.) Neural Networks and a New Artificial Intelligence. London: International Thompson Computer Press.

Sharkey, N.E.,  and Sharkey, A.J.C. (1996) Separating representation and learning in neural nets. In S. Wermter, E.Riloff, and G. Scheler (Eds) Statistical and symbolic arpproaches to learning for natural language processing. 17-32 Springer Verlag.

Jackson, SA and Sharkey, NE (1996) Grounding Computational Engines. AI Review, 10, 65-82.

Sharkey, NE, Sharkey, AJC, and Jackson, SA. (1994) Opening the black box of Connectionist Nets: Some lessons from Cognitive Science, Computer Standards and Interfaces, 16, 279-293.

Sharkey, N.E. and Jackson, S.A. (1994) Three horns of the representational Trilemma. In V. Honavar (Ed) Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks: Steps towards Principled Integration. 155-189. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

Sharkey, NE and Jackson, SA (1994). An Internal report for Connectionists In R. Sun (Ed) Computational Architectures Integrating Neural and Symbolic Processes: A perspective on the state of the art. 223-244 Boston: Kluwer.

Sharkey, N.E. (1992) The Ghost in the Hybrid: A Study of Uniquely  Connectionist Representations.
AISB Quarterly. 10-16.

Sharkey, N.E. (1991) Connectionist representation techniques. AI Review5, 3, 143-167.

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Connectionist Natural Language Processing

Selected Papers                                                                                                              [ Menu] [Home]

Sharkey, N.E., Sharkey, A.J.C.,  and Jackson, S.A. (2000) Are SRNs sufficient for modelling language acquisition.
In P. Broeder and J.Murre (Eds) Models of language learning: inductive and deductive approaches,
Oxford University Press.

Sharkey, N.E. (1996) Fundamental Issues in Connectionist Natural Language Processing. In Gillian Brown (Ed)
Performance and Competence in Second Language Acquisition. 155-184, Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Sharkey, NE., Day, PA., and Sharkey, AJC, (1995) A connectionist machine-tractable dictionary: the very idea. In Guo, Cheng-ming (Ed.)  Machine-Tractable Dictionaries: Design and Construction. 113-130. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex

Sutcliffe, R.F.E., Vossen, Sharkey, O'Sullivan, Slator, McElligott, (1994) Psychometric Performance Metrics for Semantic Lexicons, Proceedings of International workshop on directions of lexical research, August, 1994, Beijing.

Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (1993) Connectionism and natural language. In Digest of IEE Colloquia, 'Grammatical Inference:Theory, Application and Alternatives. pp 20/1-20/10.

Sharkey, N.E. (1992) Functional compositionality and soft preference rules. In B. Linggard and C. Nightingale (Eds)
Neural Networks for Images, Speech and Natural Language. London:Chapman and Hall. 235-255.

Sharkey, N.E. and Reilly, R. (1992) An overview of connectionist language processing.  In R. Reilly  and
N.E. Sharkey (Eds) Connectionist  Approaches to Language Processing. Hove:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sharkey, N.E. (1992) The causal role of the constituents of  superpositional representations. In R. Trappl (Ed)
Cybernetics and  Systems Research, Kluwer Academic Publishers.  1375-1382.

Sharkey, N.E. (1989)  Weighting for a solution to natural language. Parallel Update9, 45-50.

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Adaptive Generalisation, Transfer and Interference

Selected Papers                                                                                                      [ Menu] [Home]

Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C. (1996) Separating Learning and Representation, In S. Wermter, E. Riloff, G. Scheler (Eds)  Symbolic, connectionist, and statistical approaches to learning for natural language processing, Springer-Verlag, 17-32.

Sharkey, NE, and Sharkey, AJC, (1995) Interference and Discrimination in Neural Net Memory. In Joe Levy, Dimitrios Bairaktaris, John Bullinaria and Paul Cairns.(Ed) Connectionist Models of Memory and Language, UCL press, 57-72.

Jackson, SA and Sharkey, NE (1995) Adaptive Generalisation in Dynamic Neural Nets, In Lars Niklasson and Mikael Boden (Eds) Current Trends in Connectionism, Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.

Sharkey, NE and Sharkey, AJC (1995) An analysis of Catastrophic Interference. Connection Science, 7, 301-329

Sharkey, N.E. & Sharkey, A.J.C. (1993) Adaptive Generalisation and the Transfer of Knowledge. AI Review, 7, 313-328. 

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Psychological Modelling, Neural Computing and Artificial Intelligence

There are some older papers here that are included for completeness.
See also  adaptive generalisation, and representation.

Selected Papers                                                                                                                        [ Menu] [Home]

Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (1995) Cognitive modelling: Psychology and Connectionism. In M.A Arbib (Ed.) The handbook of brain theory and Neural Networks. Bradford Books/MIT press,  200-203.

Sharkey, N.E. & Sharkey, A.J.C. (1994) Emergent Cognition, Handbook of Neuropsychology. 9, 347-360. Elsevier Science:Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Sharkey, A.J.C. and Sharkey, N.E. (1992) Weak contextual constraints in text and word priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 543-572.

Sharkey, N.E. (1989) The lexical distance model and word priming. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 11.

Sharkey, N.E. and Sharkey, A.J.C. (1987) What is the point of integration? The loci of knowledge-based facilitation in sentence processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 255-276.

Sharkey, N.E. (1986)  A model of knowledge-based expectations in text comprehension.  In J.A. Galambos,
J.B. Black and R.P. Abelson (Eds)  Knowledge Structures.  New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 49-70.

Sharkey N.E. and Brown G.D.A. (1986)  Why artificial intelligence needs an empirical foundation.  In M. Yazdani
(Ed)  Artifical Intelligence: Principles and Applications.  London: Chapman and Hall, 267-293.

Sharkey, N.E., Sutcliffe, R.F.E. and Wobcke, W.R. (1986)  Mixing binary and continuous connection schemes for
knowledge access.  Proceedings of the American Association for Artifical Intelligence, Philadelphia.

Sharkey, N.E. and Mitchell, D.C. (1985) Word recognition in a functional context: The use of scripts in reading. Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 253-270.

Sharkey, N.E. and Bower, G.H. (1984)  The integration of goals and  actions in text understanding.  Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 6.

Sharkey, N.E. and Pfeifer, R. (1984)  Uncomfortable bedfellows:  cognitive psychology and AI. In M. Yazdani and
A. Narayanan (Eds),  Artificial Intelligence: Human Effects. Chichester: Ellis Horwood, 163-172.

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