Cardiac modelling gallery

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These images and movies show electrical activity in models of cardiac tissue. In each case the excitability of the tissue is modelled using the simplified models developed by Flavio Fenton.

Please do not reproduce or use these images without permission.

2D models

In 2D sheets, re-entrant waves form rotating spiral waves. These can be either stable (left) or unstable (right)
stable spiral waveunstable spiral wave
Click the links below to download movies (WMV format) showing examples of stable and unstable spiral waves.
3D models
In 3D, re-entrant wave form rotating scroll waves. As in 2D, these can be stable or unstable. The image below shows re-entry in a 3D slab of tissue, which represents a section taken from the heart wall. A scroll wave rotates around a filament of phase singularity, which is shown in the image below as a purple tube.

scroll wave with filament

Click the links below to download movies showing examples of unstable re-entry and filaments in 3D slabs of anisotropic cardiac tissue.
Whole ventricle simulations offer insights into the behaviour of re-entrant waves and filaments in realistic cardiac geometry. The movie below shows re-entry and filaments in an anatomically detailed model of rabbit ventricles that was kindly made available by colleagues at USCD.

Epicardial potential 864 msIsosurface 864 msFilaments 864 ms

3 panel movie showing epicardial potential, isosurface view, and filaments (MPG 1.97 MB).

Page last updated 12-may-2006 by Richard Clayton